The Industrial Revolution brought
massive changes in society. Agriculture, which had traditionally depended on
animal power and human workers, became mechanized. Many who had made up the
agricultural work force explored new economic opportunities in the growing cities.
At the same time, factory work became more mechanized, which created a need for
fewer workers. The growing population and mechanization of factories left the
cities with increasing numbers of jobless poor people.
Many city residents could not find
regular work and barely eked out a living. They often benefited from additional
help to meet their most basic needs. New organizations offered a helping hand
to these people—namely the YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association), YWCA (Young
Women’s Christian Association), and The Salvation Army. Each of these
organizations aimed to foster the spiritual growth and meet the physical needs
of those struggling in city life.
William Booth (1829–1912) originally
founded The Salvation Army in London in 1865. The purpose of The Salvation Army
was to help the poor and introduce them to faith in Jesus Christ.
William Booth started his career as an
evangelist in 1852. Rather than follow the traditional ministries of the
church, he abandoned the pulpit and took the gospel to the streets, where he
could speak directly to the poor and needy. Booth’s unorthodox methods led to
disagreement with church leaders in London, who insisted on more conservative
methods of ministry. As a result, Booth stopped trying to work with the church and
set out across England, preaching the gospel wherever he found people. After a
series of meetings in the East End of London, Booth decided to remain there and
minister to those in need.
Booth’s original goal was not to start
a church but rather to convert people and then connect them to existing
churches. At the time, this was a radical approach. Unfortunately, the churches
weren’t interested in the types of converts Booth was gaining and lacked the
interest or ability to minister to them. Former prostitutes, drunkards, and
gamblers did not fit in the refined atmosphere of the Church of England.
Since the church resisted these new
converts, Booth trained them himself and sent them out to convert others.
Within seven years, his Christian Mission grew from ten full-time workers to a
group of one thousand, with forty-two evangelists.
Booth had never bothered giving his
ministry a name, other than the “Christian Mission.” He was the superintendent
of the work, but his staff called him “the General.” (The workers became
commonly known as the Hallelujah Army.) The name Salvation Army became
official when Booth was reading a printer’s proof of the 1878 annual report.
Seeing the statement “The Christian Mission is a volunteer army,” he took up
his pen, crossed out a few words, and wrote in the new name, “The Salvation Army.”1
The Salvation Army came to America
through Lieutenant Eliza Shirley (1863–1932). She moved to Philadelphia to join
her immigrant parents and organized The Salvation Army’s first US meeting in 1879.
As the work grew, she sent a letter to General Booth requesting reinforcements,
which she eventually received.
Booth saw the need for The Salvation
Army to develop a social relief system in order to help meet the needs of the
people they ministered to. From its birth, The Salvation Army operated under
the belief that charity would speed the work of evangelism by opening the
people’s hearts to hear the gospel message. Booth said:
While women weep, as they do now, I’ll
while little children go hungry, I’ll
while men go to prison, in and out, in
and out, as they do now, I’ll
while there is a drunkard left, while
there is a poor lost girl upon
the streets, where there remains one
dark soul without the light of
God, I’ll fight!—
I’ll fight to the very end!2
Salvation Army may have been the most successful of the organizations aiming to
meet the needs of the poor and needy, it was not the only one. The Red Cross
and Jane Addam’s (1860–1935) settlement house programs also helped those in
need. As with The Salvation Army, these Christian organizations worked at
meeting social needs and aimed to empower people to follow and serve God.
In some cases, the works of helping
the poor, abolition, and women’s suffrage blended together. Some workers, like
Addams and Sojourner Truth (c. 1797–1883), a former slave, worked tirelessly to
advance single mothers, women’s suffrage, improved working conditions, a
juvenile court system, and child labor laws.
1 “History of the
Salvation Army.” The Salvation Army. Web. 10 July 2015.